Cumulonimbus Clouds (Cb)
Cb Calvus
Cb Inflow
Cb Hector I
Cb Hector II
Cb Calvus Capillatus
Cb above Taunus
Cb from Aircraft
Cb in the Tropes
Views of Tropical Cb
Cb Mammatus I
Cb Mammatus II
View from Aircraft
Cb Incus
Cb - Ci I
Cb - Ci II
Squall lines from Cb



Cumulonimbus Mammatus Clouds
- View from an Aircraft -

During these two domestic flights within Brazil the aircraft closely passed Cumulonimbus clouds. So Mammatus dents could be clearly recognized below the anvil of the cloud (see the red marked area in Mammatus1.jpg). Mammatus4.jpg and Mammatus14.jpg were taken at the same flight that is documented in Views of Tropical Cb. Especially Mammatus13.jpg and Mammatus14.jpg - where the dents occur below the outermost end of the anvil of a Cb - display how the air decreases out of the anvil. The cooling necessary for this is generated by evaporating ice-crystals.

Mammatus1.jpg to Mammatus3.jpg: S. Borrmann, flight from Sao Paulo to Fortaleza, Brazil, 18 February 2004 around 1:20 p.m.

Mammatus4.jpg to Mammatus7.jpg: S. Borrmann, flight Varig RG2375 from Fortaleza to Sao Paulo in Brazil, 2 March 2004 around 5:05 p.m.

Mammatus8.jpg to Mammatus14.jpg: S. Borrmann, flight Varig RG2375 from Fortaleza to Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2 March 2004 around 4:46 p.m. and 5:52 p.m.

Camera Parameters

Olympus E-1 SLR with a 14-54 mm objective. Exposure and ASA sensitivity choice were performed by the camera. The colour range was set to sRGB with a resolution of 2560 x 1920 Pixel x 24 colours.