Cumulus Clouds (Cu)
Cu humilis
Smog BL Top Clouds
BL Top Clouds - Dust
Cu congestus I
Cu congestus II
Cu con praecipitatio
Con congestus IV
Con congestus V
Cu ´magritteus`
Cu mediocris
Cu pileus
Cu arcus
Tropical Cu
Marine BL



Penetrating Cumulus Clouds

CuPen1.jpg to CuPen3.jpg: These images show a Cumulonimbus cloud which is formed at the moment. Its upper part has just gone through a high located cloud layer due to convection. This process is called penetration. According to cockpit information the images were taken at an altitude of 11.3 km and an outdoor temperature of - 44 deg C.

CuPen3.jpg was taken from a shorter distance. It shows the "flat" surface of the penetrating cloud (in opposite to the cauliflower-like dents which are typically noticed at Cumulus clouds). In the background of CuPen2.jpg a fully-grown Cumulonimbus cloud with a small, most probably iced anvil is visible.

CuPen4.jpg and CuPen5.jpg: Also here a Cumulonimbus cloud with extended anvil is passed at an altitude of 11.2 km and an outdoor temperature of - 49 deg C. The centre part of the Cb pushes again through the iced layer of the anvil.

The change of the prospect from the mid latitudes to the tropes is remarkable. Although the two flights ran at the same cruising altitude, the travel in the tropes was far below the tropopause. Therefore the towers of the Cb clouds can easily rise up to the cruising altitude.

CuPen1.jpg to CuPen3.jpg: S. Borrmann; flight from Frankfurt to Crete, MINOS Field Campaign, 30 July 2001, in the afternoon

CuPen4.jpg to CuPen5.jpg: S. Borrmann; flight from Sao Paulo to Fortaleza in Brazil, 18 February 2004, 0:45 p.m.

Camera Parameters

Olympus E-1 SLR with a 14-54 mm objective. Exposure and ASA choice (200 ASA) was performed by the program automation of the camera. The images were taken in the sRGB colour range with a resolution of 2560 x 1920 Pixel x 24 colours.