Dust and Haze
Hazy Atmosphere
Urban Air Pollution
Smog at Crete
Dust Devil
Sahara Dust
Seasalt Aerosol



Different Inversions

Inv1.jpg and Inv2.jpg show an inversion in the medium level without cloud formation at the inversion. In the upper level Cirrus clouds are recognizable. The poor quality of the images is due to an unclear window glass and the digitalization of the paper copy.

In Inv3.jpg and Inv4.jpg inversions in the medium level above southern Sweden are shown. Thereby here clouds have formed at the inversions. Partly they are still in the Altocumulus humilis stage, mostly however already compressed to an Altocumulus layer.

Inv5.jpg presents an inversion in the upper level without any structure above the Baltic Sea which is below the cruising altitude of approximately 10 km. It is not likely that it is at the tropopause level since in these latitudes during summer it would be above the cruising altitude. Though this layer seems to be optically thick at the photograph, like a Cirrus layer, it was not an ordinary cloud but a hazy fume.

Inv6.jpg to Inv8.jpg: In the valley two haze layers can be noticed marking the inversions. At the starry night the ground was cooled down as a consequence of infrared emissions. So the temperature of the air directly located above ground was reduced. Further to the top the air remained warmer and the typical inversion occurred. The same situation one year later is displayed in Inv8.jpg.

Inv9.jpg to Inv12.jpg show ground inversions which are characteristic for the winter time especially in the Polar Regions.

The exhaust plumes of the waste incinerator, the power plant (Inv9.jpg to Inv13.jpg) and the mine power plant (Inv14.jpg and Inv15.jpg) ascend within the stable ground layer. Thereby they expand until they are cooled down to the potential temperature of the environment and spread remaining at this altitude. Thereby the horizontal extension of the smoke plume can reach 10 km and more. This can be also noticed in the images Inv12.jpg and Inv13.jpg which were taken in the city of Kiruna. In Inv14.jpg the initial overshooting over the theta-level and the following falling back of the emitted air parcels can be recognized.

TaunusFire1+2.jpg display the ascent of a smoke plume in the Taunus that is not limited to the top by an inversion. But it can expand undisturbed within the prevalent layering in the boundary layer.

Darwin is located within the tropes at 12.5 ° southern latitude and 131 °eastern longitude - the so-called "maritime continent". These images were taken around 3 hours after sunrise. Similar to the images Inv9.jpg to Inv15.jpg - which were taken in the Arctic - the smoke expands under an inversion.
It can be noticed in TropInversion15.jpg, that even though turbulences and buoyancy occurred, the aerosol was confined below an inversion.

The night before the sky was covered with clouds, so that the ground inversion did not derive from radiative cooling of the ground as in the images from Kiruna. In Darwin it rained quite a long period of time in the morning and the temperature was below 33°C which was the typical morning temperature. Here evaporation of raindrops and water at the ground led to a cooling of the lowest air layer, so that the ground inversion was caused by "evaporative cooling".



Inv1-5.jpg: S. Borrmann, flight from Stockholm to Frankfurt, 22 June 2002 1:00 to 3:00 p.m.

Inv6+7.jpg: S. Borrmann, Pulpit Rock, Carinthia, Austria, 28 December 2001

Inv8.jpg: S. Borrmann, Pulpit Rock, Carinthia, 4January 2003, 11:15 a.m.

Inv9-15.jpg: S. Borrmann, Kiruna, Sweden, ENVISAT Validation Campaign, 5th of March 2003, 8:00 to 10:00 a.m.
" TaunusFire1.jpg and TaunusFire2.jpg: O. Hartmann, Mainz, Germany, Summer 2001

TropInversion15.-17.jpg: S. Borrmann, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 Field Campaign, 29th of November 2005, 9:13 a.m. local time